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2020考研英语长难句10大句型解析汇总

2019-4-17 09:53| 发布者: libidosdc| 查看: 374| 评论: 0|来自: 网络综合整理

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在考研英语的五大题型中,任何一个题型都有大量的长难句,短则30个单词,长则50个单词,攻克这些长难句是必须的,也就是考察我们的语法能力。中国教育在线今天整理了2020考研英语长难句10大句型解析,一起来看看吧。


强调句型

  一、考点概述

  省略结构在考研英语中的考查主要体现在句子的理解层面,主要分为两类:一类是借助于其他词语的省略,如使用助动词代替前文出现过的动词,使用代词代替提到过的名词;另一类直接省略,如略去上下文的重合部分,通常是主语(和/或)谓语。

  二、要点精析

  省略结构的掌握要求是:

  1.快速识别句子省略的内容;

  2.补全句子省略的内容。常见的省略现象会出现在并列结构中、状语从句中、名词性从句中和定语从句中。

  (1)并列结构中的省略

  在并列句中,后面的分句往往省略和上文重合的部分。

  例:

  I think you’ll win the race; indeed we all think so.

  我认为你一定会赢得这场比赛,事实上我们都这样想。(so=you’ll win the race)

  (2)状语从句中的省略

  在when/while/if/as if/though(although)/as/until/whether等连词引导的状语从句中,若谓语是be,主语是it或与主句的主语相同时,则通常连同be动词一起被省略。

  例:

  If (it is) necessary, we can give you another chance.

  如果必要的话,我们可以再给你一次机会。

  (3)名词性从句中的省略

  常见的是使用不定式在主动表达中省略动词的施动者,在被动表达中省略助动词、情态动词等。

  例:

  She will go to Beijing, but I don’t know how (she will go to Beijing).

  她将去北京但我不知道她怎么去。

  (4)定语从句中的省略

  定语从句中也常使用不定式作为省略的手段;当用as引导非限制性定语从句时,常省略系动词。

  例1:

  All tests require a potential candidate with whom (the tests) to compare DNA.

  所有的测试都需要一个潜在的对象,从而可以将DNA与其比较。

  例2:

  He gave the same answer as (he had given) before.

  他给出的答案和以前一样。

  三、试题举例

  However , it has been found that even people insensitive to a certain smell at first can suddenly become sensitive to it when exposed to it often enough . (05,完型)

  【重点词汇解析】insensitive,adj. 感觉迟钝的;expose,vt. 使曝光、揭露、显示

  【参考翻译】然而我们却发现,即使某些人开始时对某种气味不敏感,如果经常接触这种气味,也会对它敏感起来。


比较句型结构

  一、理论常识

  比较结构

  1. no/not ... other than

  2. the 比较级……,the 比较级……

  3. rather ... than ...

  4. more than / no more than

  5. less than / no less than

  6. more A than B / no more A than B

  7. less A than B / no less A than B

  8. nothing else than

  9. as much as

  10. not as ... as ...

  11. not so much ... as ...

  二、试题举例

  They may teach very well , and more than earn their salaries , but most of them make little or no independent reflections on human problems which involve moral judgment . (2006,50)

  【重点词汇解析】reflection,n. 反射、沉思;involve,n. 涉及、包含

  【参考翻译】他们可能擅长教书,而且不仅仅专注于赚钱,但是这些人大部分对涉及人类道德判断的问题很少或没有进行独立的思考。


否定句型结构

  一、理论常识

  1. 部分否定

  Not both of them are my brothers .

  Both of them are not my brothers .

  All is not gold that glitters .

  2. 双重否定

  双重否定分为三种:

  肯定型:

  There are no roses without thorns .

  强调型:

  I just can’t do nothing .

  委婉型:

  I can’t hardly read your hand writing .

  3. 几乎否定

  She is barely right .

  I seldom got any sleep last night .

  Few people can understand why he did it .

  二、试题举例

  There is no agreement whether methodology refers to the concepts peculiar to historical work in general or to the research techniques appropriate to the various branches of historical inquiry .

  【重点词汇解析】methodology,n. 方法论;refer to 参考、涉及、指的是; branch,n. 分支 v. 分支、出现分歧

  【参考翻译】所谓方法论是指一般的历史研究中的特有概念,还是指历史研究中各个具体领域使用的研究手段,人们对此意见不一。


强调句型结构

  一、理论常识

  强调主要有两种形式:

  1. 强调谓语:

  Eg1 : I love you . —> I do love you . —> I did love you .

  Eg2 : Cell phone / Internet / computer brings us convenience .—> Cell phone / Internet / computer does bring us convenience .

  2. 强调句式:

  It is / was + 被强调成分 +that / who + 句子其他成分。

  【步骤】

  a. 先写出正确的简单句、并列句或复合句,明确单句的各个成分。

  b. 在被强调成分(除谓语和补语外)两边添加it is / was 和that / who, 其他成分不变,必要时调整顺序。

  【强调句式特征】去掉it is / was ... that / who结构,整个句子无冗余或成分残缺。

  Eg1 : My mother always encourages me not to lose heart when I have difficulties in study .

  —> It is my mother who / that always encourages me not to lose heart when I have difficulties in study .

  —> It is when I have difficulties in study that my mother always encourages me not to lose heart .

  二、试题举例

  Thus , in the American economic system it is the demand of individual consumers , coupled with the desire of businessmen to maximize profits and the desire of individuals to maximize their incomes that together determine what shall be produced and how resources are used to produce it .

  【重点词汇解析】couple with 与……相结合;maximize,v. 取……最大值、达到最大值

  【参考翻译】因此,在美国的经济体系中,个体消费者的需求与商人试图最大化其利润的欲望和个人想最大化其收入效用的欲望相结合,一起决定了什么应该被制造,以及资源如何被用来制造它们。


插入句型

  一、理论常识

  插入结构表示说话人的态度和看法,解释或者说明整个句子,去掉之后句子仍然完整。插入结构的成分可以是副词、形容词短语、介词短语、不定式短语、分词短语或者主谓结构。在这就不一一论述了。但值得注意的是插入语的翻译,有些插入语,尤其是位于句首的插入语,可保持原文中的词序。然而,在许多情况下,需要对英语原文句子的顺序作必要的调整,使译文符合汉语习惯。

  二、试题举例

  But , for a small group of students , professional training might be the way to go since well-developed skills , all other factors being equal , can be the difference between having a job and not .

  【参考翻译】但是,对一小部分学生来说,专业训练也是条可取的路径。因为在其他因素相同的情况下,技能的娴熟是得到工作与否的关键。

  
倒装句型

  一、理论常识

  倒装句的几种形式

  1. 以here , there ,then , now , next引出的倒装句。

  Here comes the special guest of the party .

  There seem to be many beautiful girls in the university .

  2. 以表地点的介词短语引出的倒装句。

  At the school gate stood an old woman .

  Under the tree are sitting some students .

  On the bed lay a big teddy bear .

  注意:主语为代词是不用倒装。

  3. 以表示方位的副词引出的倒装句。

  Off went the horse .

  Down fell a dozen apples .

  4. 否定词或具有否定意义的词及词组用在句首。

  Never have I seen such a good teacher .

  Not a moment did he waste on campus .

  By no means should she be left alone .

  Under no circumstances will I believe you .

  5. only置于句首。

  Only in this way can we make a difference .

  6. as / though引导让步状语从句。

  Rich as he is , he spends a cent on charity .

  Try as / though he does , he never seems able to get a high score in the exams .

  7. 在虚拟条件句中,连词if省略时,即将were , had , should等词提到句首。

  Were I you , I would take this chance .

  Should he come tomorrow , he would help us to settle the problem .

  二、试题举例

  Odd though it sounds , cosmic inflation is a scientifically plausible consequence of some respected ideas in elementary-particle physics , and many astrophysicists have been convinced for the better part of a decade that it is true.

  【重点词汇解析】plausible,adj. 貌似可信的;consequence,n. 结果、推论;astrophysicist,n. 天体物理学家

  【参考翻译】尽管它听起来很奇怪,宇宙膨胀说是在基础粒子物理学中的一些公认的观点在科学上貌似可信的推论,并且很多天体物理学家在近十年中已经相信这种理论是真实的。


并列句型

  一、理论常识

  由并列连词连接、含有两个或更多主谓结构的句子叫并列句。

  表示转折对比关系的并列连词

  1. but

  2. yet 但是;尽管如此

  3. while 而,但是,可是,却

  表示因果关系的并列连词

  1. for 因为

  2. so 因此

  表示选择关系的连词

  or

  表示并列关系的并列连词

  1. and 和,同,与,又,并且

  2. not only ... but also ... 不仅……而且

  3. neither ... nor ... 既不……也不

  4. both ... and ... 既……又

  其他并列连词

  1. not ... but ... 不是……而是

  2. rather than 而不是;与其……宁愿

  3. when 正当那时,相当于and at that time

  二、试题举例

  例句1:

  In the American economy , the concept of private property embraces not only the ownership of productive resources but also certain rights , including the right to determine the price of a product or to make a free contract with another private individual .

  【重点词汇解析】embrace,v. 拥抱、包含 n. 拥抱;productive,adj. 生产(性)的;contract,n. 合同 v. 订约

  【参考翻译】在美国经济中,私有财产的概念不仅包含对生产资源的所有权,也指其他一些特定的权利,如确定一个产品价格和与另一个私人个体自由签定合同的权利。

  例句2:

  In addition , the computer programs a company uses to estimate relationships may be patented and not subject to peer review or outside evaluation .

  【重点词汇解析】estimate,vi. 估计、估价 vt. 估计、评价 n. 估计、判断;patent,n. 专利权 vt. 授予专利

  【参考翻译】另外,有的公司用来鉴定关系的计算机程序或许已经申请了专利保护,并不接受同行评审或外界的评估。


同位语从句

  一、理论常识

  同位语从句是对其前面的抽象名词进行解释说明,被解释说明的词和同位语在逻辑上是主表关系。同位语从句的结构一定是先行词加引导词加上从句的构成,that并不是唯一可以引导同位语从句的引导词,whether , why , who . 从句一定要具有完整的句子结构,主谓宾都必须齐全,引导词不充当任何成分。

  常见先行词:

  belief , fact , hope , idea , doubt , news , rumor , conclusion , evidence ,suggestion , problem , order , answer , decision , discovery , explanation , information , knowledge , law , opinion , truth , promise , report , thought , statement , rule , possibility .

  二、试题举例

  例句1:

  Scientists jumped to the rescue with some distinctly shaky evidence to the effect that insects would eat us up if birds failed to control them . (2010,46)

  【重点词汇解析】distinctly,adv. 明显地;eat up 吃光、耗尽

  【参考翻译】科学家急忙用一些明显站不住脚的证据去营救,证据内容是如果鸟类不能控制昆虫的话,他们会把我们吃光。

  例句2:

  But the idea that the journalist must understand the law more profoundly than an ordinary citizen rests on an understanding of the established conventions and special responsibilities of the media . (2007,48)

  【重点词汇解析】profoundly,adv. 深刻地;rest on 依靠、信赖

  【参考翻译】但是新闻记者必须比普通公民更深刻的理解法律,这种观点基/依赖于新闻媒体对惯例和特殊责任的理解。

  例句3:

  Generally there was a belief that the new nations should be sovereign and independent states , large enough to be economically viable and integrated by a common set of laws .

  【重点词汇解析】sovereign,n. 君主、独立国 adj. 有主权的;viable,adj. 可行的;integrate,v. (使……)成整体 adj. 整合的

  【参考翻译】他们普遍认为新生的国家是拥有主权和完全独立的国家,大到经济上可运行良好,并由一套共同法律让各个新的独立国家联合起来。


定语从句

  一、理论常识

  在复合句中作定语,修饰主句中某一名词或代词的从句。

  结构:先行词+关系词(分为关系副词和关系代词)+从句

  关系代词(that , who , which , whose , as)

  关系副词(when , where , why , how)

  定语从句分为限制性定语从句及非限制定语从句,限定从直接放在先行词后,非限定从与先行词之间要加逗号。

  二、试题举例

  例句1:

  The Aswan Dam , for example , stopped the Nile flooding but deprived Egypt of the fertile silt that floods left-all in return for a giant reservoir of disease which is now so full of silt that it barely generates electricity .

  【重点词汇解析】deprive sb. of sth. 剥夺某人某物;silt,n. 淤泥 v. (使)淤塞

  【参考翻译】例如,阿斯旺大坝阻止了尼罗河的洪水侵袭,但是也夺去了埃及的洪水留下的肥沃淤泥---这一切换来的却是一个巨大的病态的水库,这个水库积满了淤泥,以至于几乎不能发电了。

  例句2:

  The second , by Joshua Greenberge , takes a more empirical approach to universality , identifying traits (particularly in word order) shared by many languages , which are considered to represent biases that result from cognitive constraints . (2012,49)

  【重点词汇解析】empirical,adj. 经验主义的;result from 由……造成;cognitive,adj. 认知的

  【参考翻译】第二个为此做出努力的人是约书亚·格林伯格,他采用经验主义的方法来研究普遍性,确认多种语言(尤其是语序方面的)共同特征,这些特征被认为是体现了由于认知局限性而带来的偏见。

  例句3:

  His function is analogous to that of a judge , who must accept the obligation of revealing in as obvious a matter as possible the course of reasoning which led him to his decision . (2006,47)

  【重点词汇解析】analogous,adj. 类似的;reveal,vt. 揭露;reason,n. 理由 v. 推论

  【参考翻译】他的职责类似于法官的职责,后者必须承担起这样的责任:用尽可能明显的方式来揭示让他做出决定的推理过程。


状语从句

  一、理论常识

  状语从句,属于副词性从句,简单说就是从句在句子中担任状语,分为时间、目的、地点、条件、方式、让步、比较、结果、原因9种状语从句。

  时间引导词:

  when , after , before , while , until , till , since , as soon as , everytime , the moment等

  地点引导词:where , wherever等

  原因引导词:because , since=now that , as等

  条件引导词:

  if , whether , unless , as long as ,on condition that , providing that等

  结果引导词:so / such ... that , so等

  目的引导词:in order that , so that等

  让步引导词:

  though , although , however , whatever=no matter what even if , even though , as (倒装) 等

  方式引导词:as , as if等

  比较引导词:

  than , as ... as , the more ... , the more ... 等

  二、试题举例

  例句1:

  While formal learning is transmitted by teachers selected to perform this role , informal learning is acquired as a natural part of a child's development .

  【重点词汇解析】transmit,vt. 传输、传播 vi. 传输、发射信号;(in)formal,adj. (非)正式的

  【参考翻译】尽管正式的学习过程是由挑选出来担当此角色的教师来进行的,非正式的学习过程却是作为孩子成长的自然一部分而完成的。

  例句2:

  While it is true that this competition may induce efforts to expand territory at the expense of others , and thus lead to conflict , it cannot be said that war-like conflict among other nations is inevitable , although competition is .

  【重点词汇解析】territory,n. 领土、版图;expense,n. 代价、损失 vt. 向……收取费用;inevitable,adj. 不可避免的

  【参考翻译】虽然这种竞争会引发以他人利益为代价的领土扩张行动,因此也会引发冲突,但却不能认为类似于战争的国家间的冲突不可避免,尽管竞争是不可避免的。

  例句3:

  While it is true that to date the Internet seems to be favoring the most developed sectors of the international community over the less developed , this need not always be the case .

  【重点词汇解析】favor,vt. 喜欢、赞成 n. 喜爱

  【参考翻译】尽管迄今为止互联网似乎更加青睐国际社会中的发达领域,而非不太发达的领域,情形并不总是如此。
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